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Biblical Manuscripts: Greek NT Manuscripts

A list of texts that can be found online to aid the study of textual criticism.


New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room (NTVMR)

This site is devoted to the study of Greek New Testament manuscripts. The New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room is a place where scholars can come to find the most exhaustive list of New Testament manuscript resources, can contribute to marking attributes about these manuscripts, and can find state of the art tools for researching this rich dataset.

While our tools are reasonably functional for anonymous users, they provide additional features and save options once a user has created an account and is logged in on the site. For example, registered users can save transcribed pages to their personal account and create personalized annotations to images.

Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts

On 13 September 2002, Dr. Daniel B. Wallace founded the Center to utilize emerging technologies to preserve and study Greek New Testament manuscripts. During its brief history, CSNTM has collaborated with more than 40 institutions on 4 continents to produce more than 350,000 images of New Testament manuscripts. In the process, the Center has discovered more than 90 New Testament manuscripts. View these images at CSNTM's digital library

Evangelical Textual Criticism Blog

The Evangelical TC Blog is a blog site run by evangelical textual critical scholars. It is a place at which Christians from an evangelical perspective can and discuss various issues in textual criticism. View this site to checkout recent updates in the field of textual criticism.

Ancient Greek Manuscripts

This website links you to numerous other websites where you can access Greek New Testament manuscripts.


List of New Testament Papyri - Excellent wikipedia article with links to various online databases that have facsimilies of the NT papyri.

Papyrus 45 is an early 3rd century manuscript. It contains verses from Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Acts.

To view P45 click here 

Also known as P. Chester Beatty II, P46 contains a corpus of Pauline letters and Hebrews, though the Pastoral Epistles appear to have been excluded. P46 dates from 175 to 225 AD. 

To view P46 click here. 

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Papyrus 52 is the earliest extant Greek New Testament fragment dating from the second century AD. It contains the text of John 18:31, 37. Click here to view the manuscript. 

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Papyrus 66 is a late second or early third century manuscript of the Gospels on papyrus. Click here to view the manuscript.



Sinaiticus is another one of the great majuscules. It dates a little later than Vaticanus (ca. 350 AD), but it is the oldest manuscript of the entire New Testament. Textual scholars generally consider this manuscript to be of a lesser quality than Vaticanus. To view Sinaiticus, click here, or head over to the NTVMR and search "01."

Codex Alexandrinus dates from the fifth century. It contains a mixed text that has challenged scholars attempting to classify its text. Generally speaking, the Gospels are one of the earliest representatives of the Byzantine text, while the Pauline letters represent the Alexandrian text. To view Alexandrinus, click here, or head over to the NTVMR and search "02."

Vaticanus is one of the great majuscules. Dating from the first half of the 4th century (c. 325 AD), this manuscript contains most of the New Testament. Textual scholars generally agree that this representative of the Alexandrian text is the best quality manuscript of the New Testament that is extant. To view the manuscript, click here, or head over to the NTVMR and search "03."

Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus is palimpsest, which is a manuscript recycled for another text. Because it has been reused, the manuscript is very difficult to read in places which has not had its text restored. To view the manuscript head over to the NTVMR and search for "04."

Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis dates from the fifth century and is the primary representative of the Western text, usually thought of as a free text containing many secondary readings. The manuscript is a diglot with Latin on one side and Greek on the other. To view Codex Bezae, click here, or head over to the NTVMR and search "05."


Fam. 1

A family of minuscule manuscripts including 1, 118, 131, and 209, all of which date from the 12th century to the 14th century. These manuscripts go back to the majuscule Koridethi, which dates from the 9th century. Minuscule 1 can viewed in the NTVMR by searching "1."

Fam. 13 

A cluster of four medieval manuscripts 13, 69, 124, 346, but also several other New Testament minuscules. One noteworthy idiosyncrasies of this family of manuscripts is its peculiar placement of the Woman Caught in Adultery (John 7:53-8:11) after Luke 21:38.

MS. 33 

Called "the Queen of the Cursives," this important minuscule dates from the 9th century. While most minuscules are Byzantine according to their text, 33 houses a primarily Alexandrian text.

MS. 1739 

Dating from the 10th century, 1739 demonstrates that a late manuscript may contain an early text. It contains a number of marginal notes taken from the writings of certain church fathers. The latest being Basil (AD 329-379), indicating the ancestor of 1739 goes back to the 4th century.