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Biblical Manuscripts: Tanakh

A list of texts that can be found online to aid the study of textual criticism.

Complete (Or Almost Complete) Tanakh Manuscripts

Leningrad Codex (ML) follows the Ben Asher tradition. It is used as the basis for Biblia Hebraica series. It dates back to 1009 C.E. You can find out more about the Leningrad Codex and view it in our library.

Madrid Codex (MM1)  A manuscript of the entire Hebrew Bible from around 1280 A.D. bought by brothers in Toledo (Spain). Often used for illustrative purposes, it is also known to be the manuscript used for the Complutensian Polyglot Bible.

Incomplete Tanakh Manuscripts

The Aleppo Codex (MA) was produced around 930 C.E. It is not a complete witness to the Masoretic text. The codex begins in Deuteronomy 28:17, so most of the Pentateuch is missing. Also missing are parts of Song of Solomon, all of Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah.